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Muliple Choice 3

1. In the research conducted by Hans Eysenck, factor analysis was used to identify ________ basic personality dimensions. Of these, the tendency to distort reality was labeled:

  1. five; conscientiousness
  2. three; extraversion
  3. three; psychoticism
  4. five; neuroticism. 
    2. I show you a picture of an adult figure hovering over a sleeping child. I ask you to tell me a story about what you think is happening. Which kind of projective test am I using?


  1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2
  2. Behavioral assessment test
  3. Rorschach test
  4. Thematic Apperception Test 
    3. I’m not all that happy, but when I smile I feel better. This idea might best be expressed by the


  1. emotional similarity theory.
  2. theory of universal affect programming.
  3. facial feedback hypothesis.
  4. facial-affect program. 
    4. Having been attacked and bitten by a German shepherd, Sam reacts with fear on spotting any large dog. According to recent developments in brain research the linking role of the _________ is paramount in the recall of this sort of fear-evoking stimulus.


  1. visual cortex
  2. amygdala
  3. left temporal lobe
  4. hippocampus 
    5. To formulate a general definition of emotion, it will be most accurate to say that


  1. emotions are feelings that have both physiological and cognitive elements.
  2. emotions are adaptive physiological responses to feelings.
  3. an emotion is a specific reaction to a perceived change in a situation.
  4. emotion is a feeling state evoked by an expressed behavior. 
    6. Which of the following statements regarding the outcomes of Mary Ainsworth’s strange situation experiments is most accurate?


  1. Only two-year-olds are capable of showing a secure attachment.
  2. Ambivalent children may both hit and embrace their mother on her return.
  3. Disorganized-disoriented behavior precedes a secure attachment.
  4. Avoidant children cry when the mother returns to the playroom. 
    7. If you support the idea that physiological arousal and the experience of an associated emotion will occur simultaneously, you’ll agree with the


  1. Schachter-Singer theory of emotion.
  2. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion.
  3. James-Lange theory of emotion.
  4. biological emotion-activation theory. 
    8. Which of the following statements regarding human sexuality is most accurate?


  1. Regarding premarital sex, the double standard applies to both men and women.
  2. In females, estrogen production is a direct result of ovulation.
  3. Only a minority of people engage in sex fantasies during actual intercourse.
  4. Masturbation is an infrequent but not uncommon cause of sexual dysfunctions. 
    9. In Maslow’s needs hierarchy, people whose need for _______ has been fulfilled are poised to ascend to the level of self-actualization.


  1. achievement
  2. safety
  3. esteem
  4. love and belongingness 
    10. In the Binet IQ test, an IQ score is equal to MA divided by CA times 100. In this formula, “MA” is to mental age as “CA” is to


  1. common age.
  2. chronological age.
  3. calculated ability.
  4. cognitive age. 
    11. During middle adulthood, the most clearly marked biological change is related to


  1. memory loss.
  2. weight loss.
  3. reproductive capabilities.
  4. the so-called midlife transition. 
    12. You maintain that physical changes in late adulthood are largely related to built-in time limits to cell reproduction. It’s safe to say that you endorse the _______ theory of aging.


  1. disengagement
  2. amyloid precursor
  3. wear-and-tear
  4. genetic preprogramming 
    13. In Piaget’s model of cognitive development, a child’s tendency to view the world entirely from his or her own perspective is referred to as


  1. the concrete operational stage.
  2. egocentric thought.
  3. metacognition.
  4. the sensorimotor stage. 
    14. In late adulthood, changes in memory may not be inevitable; however, any decline in memory tends to involve _______ memory.


  1. implicit
  2. semantic
  3. episodic
  4. intrinsic 
    15. Sternberg’s concept of practical intelligence is most directly related to


  1. emotional intelligence.
  2. information processing.
  3. multiple intelligences.
  4. overall success in living. 
    16. According to _______ approaches to motivation, each person strives to maintain a certain level of stimulation and activity.


  1. homeostasis
  2. arousal
  3. instinct
  4. drive-reduction 
    17. In the _______ theory of motivation, _______ motivation is to satisfaction provided by activities that are their own reward as _______ motivation is to satisfaction derived from the reward for some kind of behavior, such as money or status.


  1. drive-reduction; extrinsic; intrinsic
  2. drive-reduction; dependent; autonomous
  3. cognitive; autonomous; dependent
  4. cognitive; intrinsic; extrinsic 
    18. If you agree with B.F. Skinner as to the nature of personality, you would also agree that


  1. human personality is largely shaped through observational learning.
  2. humans are infinitely changeable because they can learn new behavior patterns.
  3. traits like sociability arise from unconscious wishes to be liked by others.
  4. personality is shaped by people’s thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values. 
    19. According to Erik Erikson, generativity-versus-stagnation is the typical challenge of


  1. old age.
  2. middle adulthood.
  3. early adulthood.
  4. adolescence. 
    20. It’s becoming increasingly apparent to researchers that infants are born with


  1. low self-esteem.
  2. developed personalities.
  3. innate temperaments.
  4. high self-esteem.
    1. Prescott is an old hand in the print shop. He insists that there’s only one dependable kind of process for printing a three-color brochure. By contrast, Baldwin recognizes several different approaches to three-color printing through the use of new digital technologies. Psychologists would say Prescott’s point of view is limited by his

    1. fundamental fixation.
    2. mental set.
    3. obsessive perfectionism.
    4. mental laziness. 
      2. After Kate’s visit to Paris, her memories about what she saw and learned were influenced by music in the background, by the comments of her traveling companion, and by the light reflecting off the Seine, reminding Kate of her childhood home on the banks of the Wabash. Psychologists would say Kate’s memories of Paris are influenced by the meanings she gave to aspects of her experience through


    1. episodic memory.
    2. implicit memories.
    3. constructive processes.
    4. flashbulb memories. 
      3. A particular kind of neuron, called a _______ neuron, fires when we observe someone else’s behavior.


    1. mirror
    2. reflective
    3. cognitive
    4. modeling 
      4. In a lab devoted to sleep disorders Julio points to the brain wave monitor, turns to Laura and says, “Subject is going into non-REM Stage 2.” Laura looking at the monitor, says, “Got it; I’m recording the time.” What would Laura and Julio see on the monitor to assure them that the subject has entered Stage 2 sleep?


    1. Brain waves are getting slower and more regular.
    2. Sleep spindles appear.
    3. Sleep disturbance is indicated by sharp wave spikes.
    4. Brain waves are irregular and episodic. 
      5. I want to condition a pet pig to come running for a food reward when I blow a whistle. In the process of this conditioning effort, the main idea is to


    1. pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
    2. pair a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
    3. teach the pig to expect food when it’s hungry.
    4. teach the pig to pay attention to the sound of a whistle. 
      6. An important reason why people forget something is that they didn’t pay much attention to it in the first place. Psychologists refer to this kind of forgetting as


    1. encoding failure.
    2. cue-dependent.
    3. decay.
    4. interference related. 
      7. I’m having some trouble recalling what I’ve previously learned about the Battle of Gettysburg because I’ve just read a new book offering new information on that Civil War battle. This sort of phenomenon is referred to as _______ interference.


    1. proactive
    2. retroactive
    3. passive
    4. distractive 
      8. Trying to make sense of an article in the world events section of the Daily Mirror, Matlock turns to Thomas and asks, “Where’s Khartoum?” Thomas, looking up from his coffee, says, “Africa. It’s the capital of Sudan.” If you hold with the idea that long-term memory includes distinct modules, what sort of memory does Thomas’s reply indicate?


    1. Procedural—episodic
    2. Procedural—semantic
    3. Declarative—semantic
    4. Declarative—episodic 
      9. Natasha has been living Philadelphia for several months and is rapidly mastering the English language.
      However, she often turns to her American friend, Emily, when she is uncertain about a concept. One day, Natasha turns to Emily and asks, “What are you meaning when you say this word ‘vehicle’?” If you were Emily, which of these prototypes would be most likely to point to feel fairly certain that Natasha “gets it”?


    1. An automobile
    2. An escalator
    3. A jet liner passing overhead.
    4. An elevator 
      10. You deprive your six-year-old of dessert each time he fails to eat his spinach. In this sort of _______, you weaken a response through taking away something pleasant or desired.


    1. positive reinforcement
    2. negative punishment
    3. positive punishment
    4. negative reinforcement 
      11. Which of the following is a specific technique used in behavior modification?


    1. Reinforcing drug-related behaviors
    2. Training a subject in helpful weight-loss strategies
    3. Selecting a behavior-change strategy
    4. Keeping no records as the program is implemented 
      12. A common repetitive technique for moving new information from short-term memory to long-term memory is called


    1. rehearsal.
    2. elaboration.
    3. selective reduction.
    4. reduction. 
      13. Responding to stimuli that are similar—but not identical—to a conditioned stimulus is called


    1. respondent reinforcement.
    2. stimulus discrimination.
    3. stimulus generalization.
    4. spontaneous recovery. 
      14. According to information provided in your text, circadian rhythms are associated with


    1. the time of month that pregnant women are likely to go into labor.
    2. attacks of sleep apnea.
    3. the occurrence of anxiety attacks.
    4. cycles of waking and sleeping. 
      15. There’s evidence that sudden infant death syndrome is related to


    1. insomnia.
    2. sleep apnea.
    3. night terrors.
    4. narcolepsy. 
      16. Which of the following statements regarding hypnosis is the best response?


    1. In general, today’s researchers have concluded that hypnosis is distinct from ordinary waking consciousness.
    2. Not all psychologists feel that hypnosis is a distinct altered state of consciousness.
    3. People who are most susceptible to hypnosis are unable to concentrate on anything for very long.
    4. All people are susceptible to hypnosis. 
      17. I help Cameron learn to play a guitar by guiding him through a sequence of reinforced behaviors, such as holding the guitar, tuning the guitar, and properly fingering simple chords. In the operant conditioning perspective, this is called A. graded reinforcement.


    1. latent learning.
    2. shaping.
    3. gradual reinforcement. 
      18. The most frequently abused nervous system depressant is


    1. marijuana.
    2. alcohol.
    3. caffeine.
    4. cocaine. 
      19. After taking the drug, Rupert reported vivid hallucinations, altered perception of sounds and colors, and distorted time perception. It’s most likely that the drug Rupert took was


    1. cocaine.
    2. LSD.
    3. marijuana.
    4. MDMA. 
      20. Methadone can be used to treat heroin addiction. However, the main drawback in this sort of treatment is that methadone


    1. is very expensive to produce, since it’s derived from rare tropical plants.
    2. provides the same sort of “high” the addict experiences with heroin.
    3. is psychologically addictive.
    4. is biologically addictive.
      1. A reference work developed by the American Psychiatric Association is referred to as DSM-IV-TR. In that acronym, S stands for

      1. Standardized
      2. Standard
      3. Statistical
      4. Symposium 
        2. After Darryl spends some time watching a boy his age happily playing with a dog, Darryl begins to lose his fear of dogs. Which approach to psychotherapy is best illustrated in this scenario?


      1. Rational-Emotive
      2. Cognitive-behavioral
      3. Dialectical behavior therapy
      4. Operant conditioning 
        3. According to psychologist Martin Seligman, depression is largely a response to


      1. sexual abuse during childhood.
      2. chronic negative circumstances.
      3. manic elation.
      4. learned helplessness. 
        4. The key theme in humanistic therapy is


      1. self-criticism.
      2. self-responsibility.
      3. philosophical reasoning.
      4. emotional expression. 
        5. In psychodynamic therapy, a primary focus is on penetrating the client’s


      1. defense mechanisms.
      2. apathy.
      3. unconscious hostility.
      4. expectations. 
        6. A therapist determined that Alice depends on relationships with others to find some shaky ground for her self-identity. In this context, Alice has always been devastated by rejection of any kind. Alice is most likely to be diagnosed as suffering from a/an


      1. narcissistic personality disorder.
      2. antisocial personality disorder.
      3. sociopathic personality.
      4. borderline personality disorder. 
        7. Regarding possible environmental causes of schizophrenia, the concept of expressed emotion refers to an interactive style characterized by


      1. withdrawal and isolation.
      2. practical jokes.
      3. hostility, criticism, and intrusiveness.
      4. obsessive perfectionism. 
        8. In the context of trends in community psychology, which statement is true?


      1. Telephone hotlines are a negative development in community psychology.
      2. Deinstitutionalization has been greatly decreased in recent years.
      3. A high proportion of homeless adults suffer from a psychological disorder.
      4. Psychoactive drugs have greatly increased the need to physically restrain mental patients. 

        9. In the context of rational-emotional behavior therapy, which of the following is considered an unrealistic and irrational idea?


      1. We must be accomplished and successful in every aspect of our lives to feel like a worthwhile person.
      2. It’s not a big deal when things don’t go the way I want them to.
      3. No one in my life should love me and approve of what I do.
      4. How I view a situation effects how I feel about myself in that situation. 
        10. In which of these statements is the scientific rationale for distinguishing Type I and Type II most clearly illustrated?


      1. If subjects X and Y are identical twins and X is diagnosed with Type 1 schizophrenia, we can be nearly 100 percent assured that Y will also develop Type I schizophrenia.
      2. Type II schizophrenics are most likely to be a threat to themselves and others.
      3. Type I schizophrenics are most likely to be a threat to themselves and others.
      4. The symptomatic profile for Type I and Type II schizophrenia is different. 
        11. Which of the following statements regarding the DSM-IV-TR is most accurate?


      1. Critics of DSM-IV-TR argue that the classification system overemphasizes physiological factors associated with specified disorders.
      2. The DSM-IV-TR offers therapists a firm foundation for estimating the degree to which a given individual is afflicted with a specified disorder.
      3. Critics agree that the DSM-IV-TR system of classification has successfully increased the reliability of diagnoses without necessarily increasing their validity.
      4. The DSM-IV-TR offers therapists a means of determining causal factors underlying a specific psychological disorder. 
        12. When Dr. Payne prescribes lithium for a bipolar disorder, she understands that


      1. the specific neurological effects of Lithium have long been recognized.
      2. antidepressants are counter-indicated when a patient is being treated with lithium.
      3. lithium can prevent reoccurrence of manic episodes.
      4. lithium is mainly successful in treating the depressive aspect of the disorder. 
        13. Which symptoms would psychiatrists or psychologists associate with Type II, negative-symptom schizophrenia?


      1. Presence of emotional extremes
      2. Social withdrawal
      3. Hallucinations
      4. Paranoid delusions 
        14. A very large sample, representing the population of the United States, was drawn to study the prevalence of psychological disorders. The second most commonly reported disorder, after depression, was


      1. alcohol dependency.
      2. panic disorders.
      3. posttraumatic stress disorder.
      4. comorbidity. 
        15. Among somatoform disorders, hypochondriasis is to obsessive concern about one’s health as a/an _______ disorder is to marked physical symptoms with no identifiable physiological cause.


      1. hysterical
      2. dissociative
      3. conversion
      4. obsessive 
        16. Which therapeutic approach does not require the presence of a psychological professional?


      1. Humanistic therapy
      2. Self-help therapy
      3. Interpersonal therapy
      4. Family therapy 
        17. Which of the following statements regarding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is true?


      1. Side-effects may include memory loss that lasts for years.
      2. Depression doesn’t return after ECT treatments have been concluded.
      3. Disorientation and confusion always accompany ECT therapy.
      4. It isn’t known why ECT works when it does work. 
        18. Lois and Lang are in a heated discussion over the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Lois maintains that psychotherapy works for most people. Lang argues that it doesn’t work for everyone. Who is correct? A. Neither Lois nor Lang is correct.


      1. Both Lois and Lang are correct.
      2. Lois is correct.
      3. Lang is correct. 
        19. Dr. Cranberry suspects that her client is selectively failing to recall an event that must, by all evidence, be stored in his memory. If the therapist turns out to be correct in this assessment, she’ll identify the disorder as dissociative


      1. fugue.
      2. repression.
      3. amnesia.
      4. identity disorder. 
        20. For the psychologist, abnormal behavior can be thought of as expressing distress of some kind that obstructs one’s ability to function. Because this is such a broad definition, it’s best to think of the range of behaviors from normal to abnormal as


      1. statistical variations.
      2. lying along a continuum.
      3. observable patterns.
      4. entirely dependent on diagnostic assumptions.


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